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The Trumpet sounds!

The trumpet has been around for thousands of years and is among the oldest of musical instruments dating back to at least 1500 BC. They are played by breathing into the instrument and, at the same time, producing a "buzzing" sound with the lips to generate a vibration within the air column inside the instrument. There are quite a few different trumpets, see list below, but by far the most common trumpet is the B♭ trumpet.

Modern trumpets have three (and infrequently four) piston valves, each of which increases the length of tubing when engaged in order to lower the pitch. The trumpet can be "tuned" to slightly raise or lower the pitch by adjusting the tuning slides associated with the valves, and some trumpets also provide "tuning sliders" that allow for minor adjustment whilst playing.

The Gold Trumpet shown here is an excellent quality student instrument that is easy to play and produces a full sound. It comes with adjustable 1st and 3rd valve tuning sliders, stainless steel valves, a 7c mouthpiece and a sturdy case.

The Trumpet Range
B♭Trumpet - Most common and beginners' trumpet
C Trumpet
A Trumpet
E♭ Trumpet
E♭/D Trumpet
F/G Trumpet
Piccolo Trumpets
Bass Trumpet
Rotary Trumpets (rotary valves)

The Cornet

The cornet has the same core structure as the trumpet and plays the same notes with the same fingering as the trumpet. Cornets and trumpets made in the same key (usually B♭) have the same pitch and broadly adopt the same playing technique however, cornets and trumpets are not entirely interchangeable as they differ quite markedly in tone. 

The main difference besides its squat appearance is the tubing which, unlike the trumpet, has for most part a conical bore, starting very narrow at the mouthpiece and gradually widening towards the bell. By contrast the trumpet adopts a cylindrical bore up to the bell flair. 
It is this conical bore of the cornet that is responsible for its mellow tone unlike the trumpet which has a much brighter, piercing sound. 

The cornet is used exclusively in brass bands and will be used by smaller jazz and brass combo's. It is sometimes also preferred for young beginners as it is easier to hold.